Top Ideas on Decontamination of Medical Facilities
Hazardous materials such as infectious diseases, radioactive substances and chemicals is removed from a substance or object through the process of decontamination. Prevention of the spread of microorganism and other noxious contaminants which has the risk of threatening the health of human beings or animals and may damage the environment is the purpose of decontamination. Veterinary science, surgery and dentistry are the medical areas in which decontamination is applied.
Not only is decontamination applied in the medical sector but also in environmental science, forensic science and food preparation. There are three levels of decontamination in order to eliminate pathogens or other substances from a spoiled implement. Disinfection, sterilization and sanitization are the three levels of decontamination.
Anti -microbial agents that are applied to the surface of nonliving objects in order to destroy microorganisms that are present in living things are known as disinfectants. Not all microorganisms are killed by bacterial spores by disinfection but its effective to some extent. The most effective type of microorganism elimination is sterilization which kills all types of microorganism. The disinfection process works by destroying the cell wall of microbes or interfering with their metabolism.
Disinfectants are of various types which include; oxidizing agents, phenolics, quaternary ammonium compounds , inorganic compounds and others. Inorganic compounds are types of disinfectants which have sub categories and they include; chlorine, acids and bases, terpenes, metals and iodine.Concentrated formulations are found in some quaternary ammonium compounds which are a large group of related compounds. The group of chlorine as an inorganic compound includes hypochlorous acid, hypochlorite and chlorine.
Physical cleaning, disinfection, antisepsis, sterilization, ultrasonic cleaning and water purification are the methods of decontamination. The process involving removal of biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases and undesirable chemicals from water is water purification. Usually drinking water is disinfected for the purpose of human consumption and water purification aids in these.
However water purification can be used for other purposes such as fulfilling the requirements of medical, chemical, industrial and pharmacological applications. There are methods that are used in water purification which include; sedimentation, filtration, distillation which are physical processes while biological process include slow sand filters or biologically active carbon also there are chemical processes which are flocculation and chlorination.
Reduction in concentration of particulate matter which are parasites, bacteria, fungi, algae and suspended particles with also the inclusion of the concentration of a range of dissolved and particulate matter. The process of removing or eliminating, deactivation or killing all forms of life and any other biological agents like fungi, bacteria, viruses, unicellular organisms that are present in a specified region such as the volume of a fluid, medication or in a compound that is culture media is sterilization. In order to achieve sterilization then heating, irradiation, filtration and high pressure are used.